Gender Studies Programme - 週三性別座談會重溫

 

2022年春季

香港中文大學性別研究課程、性別研究中心合辦

 

16 Nov 2022 (Wed) The interplay between intimacy and commodification: Exploring family and work lives of lesbians in China

 

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Prof Lo’s presentation examines the ways in which lesbians explore opportunities and navigate constraints in their family and work lives in urban China. Research reveals that the interconnection between the economic and intimate life of lesbians in modern cities is commodified. They not feel empowerment through navigate lives in work and pink market as resourceful consumers, but also intersecting with sociopolitical and neoliberal power with their everyday practices on a larger background.

Although the respectable queer citizens could make relatively free expression of their sexual identity through the consumption of commodities and capital, opportunities to subvert traditional gender expectations carry a high price tag, which could be unaffordable for many economically disadvantaged lesbians. The hidden danger here is that commercial logic may cover personal voice. That is it transforms feminism from a political movement to a non-politicized product and personal attitude. And the paper also point out that lesbians also face the hinders in the labour market. Except from fashion field, in which sexual minorities have their own traffic(自带流量). In most workplaces, lesbians are cautious about disclosing their sexual orientation because of the fear of discrimination and prejudice. It inspire us to think how gender norms, heteronormativity, and policy intersect in generating obstacles for Chinese lesbians to thrive as respectable adult workers. This has important implications for further attempts to help adult worker to fit better with people's diverse work /family needs.

Despite from everyday practices and interactions,there’s also need to observe the penetration of digital media into daily life. And it is easy to find that in many mon-homosexual-oriented social media software in China, lesbians have less visibility compared with gays, which is similar to the second point of the article's research gap.

撰文XU Yinuo

 

On November 16, the topic of professor LO’s speech was the interplay between intimacy and commodification by exploring the family and work lives of lesbians in China.

She began her speech with the research objectives and the research question, which were how do Chinese lesbians navigate their economic and intimate lives in a context where same-sex relationships are yet to be socially or legally recognized, and how do gender and sexuality intersect with the wider socio-political and neoliberal climate in shaping Chinese lesbians’ economic and intimate lives. The main research gaps were underground queer scenes in more restrictive contexts, everyday practices in commodification and sexuality, and Chinese lesbians.
After introducing the challenges and opportunities of the queer community, the rise of queer desires, and the pink market, she told us her research method is an in-depth interview about well-educated lesbians in Beijing. There were three findings. Firstly, participants' intimate lives are 'commodified', because their choices about intimacy and same-sex marriage are related to the workplace and pink market. Secondly, the ways they use to avoid gendered and sexual obstacles in the labor market by hiding or fictitious their sexual orientation, gender expression, and marital status are 'commodified’. Thirdly, most participants’ strategies to accommodate and/or resist established norms are finding their own comfort zone.

In conclusion, this research showed how commodification and intimacy interact with each other, and the dilemma of Chinese lesbians that they must get a decent job to have the life they want, but due to the gendered and sexual obstacles, they cannot openly lead the life they want.

撰文ZHANG Yue

 

At the talk on 16 November 2022, Prof. LO Iris shared her project, "the Interplay between Intimacy and Commodification: Exploring Family and Work Lives of Lesbians in China." Based on the in-depth interviews with lesbians living in Beijing, she delved into the economic and intimate lives of lesbians in the Chinese urban landscape and weaved it with the political and neoliberal atmosphere in China.
She proposed that 1978 is the watershed compared with previously stigmatized, although not illegal, queer living circumstances, allowing the new exploration of queer subjectivities. Queer people were shaped by middle-class cosmopolitan values that encouraged them to pursue their material and emotional desire without transgressing social norms or challenging the limitation that the government set. During the interview, Prof. LO found that urban lesbians were eager to enter the labour market to gain enough money to become respectful citizens, capable workers, and resourceful consumers. And they expected this would bring them more freedom and subjectivity to their sexual orientation.

However, Prof. LO also found that the queer agency that the market brought was always intertwined with vulnerability. The strategies that lesbians adopted to sustain decent jobs providing the economic foundation for the life they wanted may also reinforce the gender and sexual orientation hierarchy. For instance, lesbians must be cautious about disclosing their sexual orientation in the workplace. They would try to hide their sexual orientation and pretend to be heterosexual. They would constantly come across the question of why they still stay single and even need to lie to their colleagues that they have got married to a heterosexual man or try to perform a traditional social script of femininity. Also, although they were determined to commodify their labour power, there was no guarantee they could earn as much money as expected since the gender wage gap still exists.
In the open discussion, several valuable and debatable points were highlighted. For instance, does the commodification in the research refers to labour or intimacy? Is the theoretical framework expandable to other Chinese intimacy phenomena, like dating shows? Is the concept of intimacy proper to explain the performance of gender norms and the interest in personal life in the workplace? Is earning enough money truly free lesbians from parents' expectations of heteronormative life?

撰文ZHENG Lin

 

 

9 Nov 2022 (Wed) Employing domestic workers and gender gap in domestic labor among working parents: An effective strategy?

 

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At last Wednesday seminar, Prof. Adam Cheung presented his research on how live-in foreign domestic workers (FDW) help reduce unpaid domestic labor for dual-earning parents in Hong Kong.

Consisting of 4-5% of HK population, FDWs play an unignorable role in HK society, and around 1/5 married population in HK live with a domestic worker. While research on FDWs’ living/working conditions flourished, limited studies have investigated the changes they brought to the employer families. Prof. Cheung therefore shifted the research focus to the hiring families. He also pointed out that, the well-established time-saving effect of the labor outsourcing nature of hiring domestic workers might not be applied to Hong Kong context for two reasons. Firstly, live-in domestic workers could generate more management tasks for the employers. Secondly, the prevailing intensive-parenting beliefs might hinder the delegation of all childcare tasks to the domestic workers, that is the delegation-involvement paradox. Instead, the time saved in housework might be taken up by the parents to do more childcare/management tasks, producing a time-displacement effect. As the emotional and communal nature of proposed new tasks, a gendered labor pattern might be expected.

Prof. Cheung’s study used a two-stage mixed-method design. The quantitative data of a representative sample of working parents (N=791, Nwith live-in help=265) suggested a time-displacement effect of live-in domestic help. Although paid help significantly reduced the time parents spent on housework, parents with live-in domestic workers spent around 3 hours more per week in unpaid labor than did those without paid help. The increased labor involved managing the domestic worker and childcare. The following in-depth interviews (N = 20) revealed parents’ subjective perception of the use of live-in domestic help as a strategy to achieve better parenting. In terms of gendered labor division, with a live-in helper, working mothers saved more time in housework but also had a larger burden of management and childcare than working fathers. No effect of hiring live-in help on diminishing gender inequality was founded, and working mothers had a higher total labor hours than fathers in both conditions.

撰文TANG Xiaolei

 

Employing foreign domestic workers and gender gap in domestic labor among working parents: An Effective Strategy

The use of live-in domestic labor is popular among dual-earning parents. Around one-third of dual-earning parents in Hong Kong currently hire live-in domestic helpers. This study provides a critical examination of the time-saving hypothesis from the domestic outsourcing literature on the roles of hiring live-in help for household labor and situates the time-saving effect in the literature of intensive parenting. The research uses mixed method, analyzes quantitative data from a representative household survey to investigate the association between employing live-in domestic help and time spent by the working fathers and mothers on housework, childcare, and tasks related to managing domestic helpers, and also analyzes qualitative data from in-depth interviews of first-hand experiences about the role of hiring help in household labor to unpack the meaning of hiring help and its relationship with the notion and practices of parenting.

The findings suggest that the use of live-in domestic help is a specialization strategy to strive for perfection in parenting for parents. By outsourcing household chores and more routinized childcare tasks to the helpers, working parents, especially mothers, can focus on emotional bonding and tasks conducive to the development of their children. Working parents hiring live-in domestic work spent significantly fewer hours in housework, however, the reduced time in housework is totally replaced by the increased time on childcare and managing the helper. The time-saving effect of using domestic help is stronger for women than for men but it does not reduce gender inequality, mothers took up most of the new role of managing domestic helpers to deal with both household chores and routinized childcare work. Parenting strategies, though, are more intensified on the part of the mothers. The gender gap still exists.

撰文ZHANG Mengya

 

Although there has been a lot of research on FDWs (Foreign Domestic Workers) in Hong Kong recently, Professor Cheung's research is very refreshing. Unlike other places of the world, Hong Kong has a tradition of employing live-in FDWs rather than flexible helpers for domestic outsourcing, which means that the former has a higher threshold, is more inflexible, and requires the employer's family to spend more time negotiating with and managing. Also, Hong Kong is a well-known city for its culture of intensive parenting. Many Hong Kong parents will consider hiring FDWs as a strategy to practice their intensive parenting. 

Based on domestic outsourcing and intensive parenting, Professor Cheung has studied the time-use patterns between Hong Kong families with and without FDWS through a mixed-method of quantitative and qualitative research and has come up with conclusions that are different from previous research. He found that the time-saving effects of domestic outsourcing are overestimated, and the time-displacement fits Hong Kong’s condition more. In Hong Kong, hiring FDWS does save parents (mainly mothers) some time in housework, but the time of child-care and managing helper increase. Due to the expectation of intensive mothering, these two tasks are still gendered and mothers always do more, which indicates hiring help cannot enhance gender equality. 

In my opinion, Professor Cheung's research perspective and findings are very inspiring. As someone interested in domestic outsourcing in mainland China, I have only focused on work-family time conflicts in the family, but not aware of the chores-childcare conflicts (especially for mothers). In addition, Professor Cheung also emphasizes the importance of the ideology of intensive parenting. In mainland China, the role of FDWs is usually taken by grandparents. However, after the abolition of extra-curricular classes, will parents' anxiety turn into a form of intensive parenting and prompt them to hire young educated helpers to do the child-care work? This is still underexplored and deserves our attention.

All in all, I really enjoyed this seminar and it gave me a lot of inspiration for my research.

撰文ZHANG Xunyue

 

 

 

 

5 Oct 2022 (Wed) Gender Research Centre Orientation Talk: Honour Based Violence: Minority Women As Agents of Change

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At Gender Research Center Orientation Talk on 5 October 2022, Dr. Raees Baig shared the research project Honour Based Violence: Minority Women as Agents of Change and presented a guidebook which is the product of this project.

During her involvement in local NGO’s investigation and assistance on domestic violence, she noticed that some Muslim women in Hong Kong were suffering from domestic violence because they were thought to brought shame to the family and community . She began to focus on their situation and try to connect with them. At the beginning she realized that Muslim women who had experienced honour-based violence, although they may not understand “honour-based violence” as an umbrella term, were able to share awareness of certain violence and poor power positions, while they also had a lot of confusion about marriage, sex and romantic relationships. Dr. Raees Baig then set up a workshop to give these women a platform to share their experiences and gender equality ideas, allowing them to connect the concepts and terms to their own experiences and identities.

However, the younger generation who have been subjected to honour-based violence are no longer passive victims, they have escaped from the official ideology through the internet and self-study of the Qur’an, and have learned about the political and religious contexts of their experience and many notions of gender equality. They try to escape their families or teach their families the new ideas they have embraced, in order to change the awful father-child relationship.

When asked if the project had helped to heal and empower the women victims, Dr. Raees Baig thought that it was important to give people who had experienced honour based violence or domestic violence more space to share their experiences, which helped them to realize and understand their situation. She also felt that their project has gone some way to challenging the global victimizing discourse of Islamic women by giving these women themselves the opportunity to speak about their effort to change the situation.

 

撰文LI Xiangyi

 

A guidebook focusing on Honour-Based Violence (HBV) was shared in the seminar in order to address the issue of HBV of young Muslim women in Hong Kong. Their HBV experiences were revealed in the booklet, aiming to explore the way they interpreted their experiences in religious and cultural perspectives, and promisingly, initiating discussions and concerns on HBV cases in Hong Kong.

The seminar is facilitated by Dr. BAIG Raees Begum and moderated by Prof. CHENG Sea Ling in a Questions & Answers approach. Dr. BAIG first shared about the motivation behind the project, their interests in investigating how the young Muslim women perceive phenomenons such as domestic violence, HBV, forced marriage in their own words. Surprisingly, the younger generation has more thoughts on differentiating their culture and religion; they also have stronger mobility on their Muslim identities and their personal autonomy when comparing to the older generation who refused to relate themselves to sexual topics.

Dr. BAIG further explained the use of the word ‘honour’ and the underlying reason for young women being the agent of change but not victim-survivors of HBV. The ground of honour is strongly correlated with pride and reputation, in social contexts, on the other hand, honour also refers to standards and behavioural guidelines encouraged by the community. In fact, Dr. BAIG revealed that young women exposed to HBV are not only perpetrated by their father or other male relatives, female members sometimes play an assisting role in the process of HBV. HBV is therefore notably family-based in Islam culture.

Nonetheless the traumatic stress experienced by the young women, Dr. BAIG mentioned they expressed a longing for rebuilding their family’s relationship, breaking through these down the ages, agony family dynamics. With an eye to leap forward the family hierarchy, those brave women tried to regain their dignity in becoming a change agent instead of labelled as victim-survivors in their situations. They further share their self exploration process through this project to break the original Muslim teaching myth, meanwhile fighting for their identity of being a Muslim.

 

撰文LI Yeuklam

 

The seminar on Oct 5th has been successfully held. Compared with the previous seminars, this one has some special components. First is the orientation of Gender Research Center. The GRC is an organization specializing in gender issues at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Prof. Lynn demonstrated the academic and practical achievements of the GRC by presenting the center's past research projects, book publications, workshops, and other activities and it was committed to recruiting members for this seminar. The second part is Dr. BAIG Raees Begum’s sharing of her 2-year project of the honour-based violence (HBV) focus on the non-Chinese Muslim young women in Hong Kong, also the publication of the guidebook based on the real experience and cases of the HBV investigated in this project.

What motivated Dr. Baig to conduct this project must be recalled from a social work experience that took place several years ago. At the time, Dr. BAIG was cooperated with one local NGO to work on domestic violence. During the work, they discovered that the situation could be religious and cultural ways. Although the previous generation of non-Chinese Muslims living locally in Hong Kong may not understand the ture meaning of the academic terms like “domestic violence” or “forced marriage”, they can express this sentiment in their own language. However, the young female generation, with the fully understanding of these term, strong self-identity, and highly opening thoughts of ideal relationship, tend to use their own voices to challenge the rigid culture. These young females started to subvert abuse and the inequalities they feel within their families. Hence the initial phase of this product: to create a platform for them to talk more about these concepts on gender issues.

Moving to the topic of “women as agents of change”in this scenario, Dr. Baig explained that from the interacting with these girls they really see how the girls grew up, how they changed their self-perceptions and how they changed their families, even if they were experiencing abuse and violence. Women in the domestic violence isn’t victims anymore, we can see how they breakthrough these situations and some of the cases the girls even developed the capacity to educating they parents and rebuild family bonds.

In summary, HBV is a form of family-based violence, and in Hong Kong society today, neither social work nor the legal system has a good solution to HBV and a host of other problems such as physical control and forced marriage. On the one hand, society should build on this, but on the other hand, we should also see how women in such domestic violence gradually developed to find their own way to defend themselves.

 

撰文QIAN Xiaoxuan

 

 

21 Sep 2022 (Wed) Daughters’ Dilemmas: Family Strategies of Highly Educated Rural-Urban Education Migrants in Hubei Province, China

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Prof. SIER Willy, in her talk, revealed how female university graduates, as the first and only bachelor’s degree holder in her rural family, experienced various intersecting social processes that were shaped by both the structural condition of China’s social transformation and their dual roles, i.e., the role of daughters in the rural household, and the role of migrant female university graduates working in the city. The author conducted ethnographic research in Hubei province, one of China’s ‘big education provinces’ with rich educational resources and a huge number of university students. With the rapidly changing conditions in rural China and the expansion of China’s higher education system, university enrolment by young women of rural origin has increased exponentially. However, these young female ‘education migrants’ continue to struggle with the exclusion of rural citizens in cities and the entrenched patriarchal family culture in rural China. They are expected to use their gender and educational achievements to provide support to their families through their urban earnings and marriage. For instance, in one of the two cases that the speaker showed, the respondent’s mother required her to get married soon to somebody with a high bride price in order to finance her brother’s marriage. This case also revealed that those highly-educated female migrants’ contributions to their rural households resulted from elaborate negotiation processes with their family members. Additionally, the study emphasized that those highly-educated female education migrants from rural China are not a homogeneous group: one respondent was keen to pursue a career and maintain her independence, while another expressed her desire to help strengthen both her own and her family’s social and economic standings through marriage. Overall, gender, rurality, and migration are indicated to put multi-pressure on female university graduates from rural backgrounds, and their ‘education migration’ brought their intense negotiations with rural households, which reconfigure the gendered household dynamic in rural China.

 

撰文GU Yuxuan

 

On September 21st, the Wednesday Seminar was successfully held, presented by Prof. Willy Sier, the assistant professor of the anthropology department of Utrecht University who has lived in mainland China for seven years.

Prof. Sier's pointed out that expanding urbanization and higher education opportunities have made education increasingly crucial for rural families. Hubei, a wealthy province with a well-established higher education system, was attracting an increasing influx of education migrants. During Prof. Sier's fieldwork in Wuhan between 2015-2017, she spoke to several young, first-in-the-family, highly educated women who face the dual pressures of their families and city lives. Prof. Sier deemed that their contribution to families goes beyond the existing literature, including the sacrifice of economy, emotion, and even personal desire.

Prof Sier discussed two case studies. One was Julia, who came from a single-parent family and took on much of the responsibility of supporting her mother's retirement and her brother's marriage after graduation. Faced with her mother's urging for marriage, Julia doubted the necessity of getting married as a city woman and believed that marriage might deprive her of the legitimacy of raising her family of origin as a rural daughter. Professor Sier argued that this case showed how the identity and mobility brought by educational migration give rise to complexity in gender roles, marital relations, property distribution, and kinship in rural Chinese households.

The other was Misty, an interlocutor who graduated from a junior college. Misty returned to her hometown and entered an unromantic marital relationship after the challenging career choice and financial crisis after graduation. This case prompted Prof. Sier to reflect on how inflation in higher education has caused a gap between employment choices and career dreams, especially for women with rural backgrounds.

Prof. Sier observes that almost every interlocutor shows ambitions in the future while diligently navigating a social landscape in which their positions are shaped by gender, educational achievements, and rural status, as well as societal structures, including marriage and labor markets. From the Pandemic to today, Prof Sier remains in contact with interlocutors remotely. Although these cases may not be representative, Prof Sier believes these anthropological studies provide academic value in understanding how intersecting social structures have shaped the lives of the increasing number of young women with higher education backgrounds and shifted dynamics in their rural families.

 

撰文HUANG Minyan

 

The research is based on the background of rural labour migrants. Young people from rural backgrounds increasingly moved to cities by enrolling in universities due to land consolidation, low pay for working in leading local enterprises, and the explosive growth of the Chinese higher education system. Professor Willy Sier examined how higher education affected university-educated daughters in rural households of their employment prospects, but also how this made sense within broader gender ideologies and labour market contexts.

She argued that highly educated young women contribute to the family in a way that goes beyond what we know from the literature as they contribute financially and emotionally and sometimes even sacrifice their ambitions to contribute to the family projects, such as helping their brother marry. She showed two cases.

First is Julia's story; being the only person in a family with a degree, she feels responsible for ensuring her brother's and mother's life. She cannot consider getting married because she thinks it's unfair for her husband and child to continue supporting her original family. Julia's case connects two sets of questions, those about the emancipating potential of higher education for young women and questions about daughters' role in rural Chinese households. It is often suggested that education is an important tool for promoting gender equality. But we see that Julia's achievements and energy are directed towards securing property for her brother and that she continuously needs to prioritize her family's needs over her desires.

The second case is Misty. Misty puts family needs ahead of her own emotional attachments when choosing a mate. Working in a factory had been an essential part of the marriage negotiation because being an accountant made her also an attractive person to marry into this family that had a factory. But her dream is to be a teacher, and don't want to work in a factory.

Their educational trajectories have always been important to them. However, they also navigate a social landscape in which their positions are shaped by their gender, educational achievements, rural status, and societal structures, including marriage labour markets.

 

撰文JIN Shuyi

 

14 Sep 2022 (Wed) The Cultural Politics of Intimacy: A Methodological Experiment

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Researchers tend to encounter difficulties when it comes to knowledge of how inequality affects the intimacy of the socio-economically marginal people. This presentation tries to figure out this problem by introducing a methodological experiment. The speaker, Prof. SUN Wanning from the University of Technology Sydney, addressed how she conducted this experiment by analyzing the contrasts, coalition, convergence and collaboration of the discursive relationships in social media, popular culture, and public criticism.

Generally, it is challenging to carry out conventional ethnographic researches when ethnographers seek to know how China’s rural migrants experience their intimate and sexual lives. Because there are methodological difficulties in investigating one’s negative love life and documenting their “dark intimacy.” Prof. SUN attempts to offer a new solution to this obstacle with a methodological experiment: to study a wide range of textual materials, by contrast, coalition, convergence, and collaboration. Her material sources include state media, labour literature, sweat-shop management’s statements, statements in an NGO’s newsletter, etc. This kind of experimental methodology dialogues with the absence of first-hand ethnography. Making good use of the narrative nature of ethnography, it regards the creators or gatherers of the textual materials as surrogate ethnographers. It thus puts forward a new concept, “‘second-hand’ ethnography” or “surrogate ethnography”.Instead of setting up a hierarchy of truthfulness, this new concept intends to ferret out the cultural politics through their discursive relationships. This experiment makes for a critical socio-economic framework in place of a normative framework of transgression. Whilst the latter one usually draws out legal or moral issues and leads to stigmatization and punishment, neglecting the emotional consequences. Prof. SUN also argues that it is socio-economic inequality but not a normative idea of moral capacity builds peoples’ abilities to reach out warm intimacy. Hence, it is of necessity to come up with such an approach.

 

撰文DENG Zhuoyun

 

In the Wednesday Gender Seminar, held on September 14, 2022, Prof. SUN Wanning, from Media and Communication Studies at the University of Technology Sydney, shared difficulties she encountered in the process of ethnographic research and presented a special case which involved various discursive positions in series of textual materials, as a powerful solution to overcome the methodological troubles. By outlining her research trajectory, Prof. Sun mentioned that the socio-economic marginalised experienced intimacy as a new notion of ‘dark intimacy’ that is purchased, violent, or injurious. Since intimacies nowadays are public social goods that not everybody has equal access to and needs to invest bodily and emotional capital, it is crucial to consider how inequality marginal groups suffer impacts their love lives. Also, first-hand ethnology may confuse the researchers due to the private essence or absence of intimacy. This led to questions about how scholars should integrate and make sense of collected data in the cultural context. Inspired by Huang Yingying, Eva Illouz, and Judith Farquhar, Prof. Sun addressed that second-hand ethnology, or surrogate ethnology, can be helpful when treated as particular narratives rather than neutral documents. To be specific, Prof. Sun introduced a project about how Foxconn sex workers were represented in textual materials with varied positions, including commercial and state press, Foxconn management’s statement, their self-statement from NGOs, lowbrow magazines, and Dagong literature. Their attitude toward sex workers varied, and female workers’ motivations to become sex workers were depicted differently, mainly in two ways: a normative framework of transgression(legal and moral order) and a socio-economic framework(supplying the family's finical needs). Between texts, four relationships: collaboration, coalition, contrast, and convergence, emerged and mutually contributed to understanding which and how the latter framework, rather than the former, gets us closer to the consequences of inequality. Thus, Prof. Sun concluded that the experiment analysing clusters of texts and their conceded perspectives is necessary since it is inequality that shapes female workers’ capacity to achieve a warm intimacy, not the normative notion of moral competence. In summary, Prof. Sun highlighted the importance of understanding and being attentive to power relations in diverse texts. To Introduce and examine a series of cultural texts does not mean doubting whether the ethnology is authentic and establishing the hierarchy of truthfulness, but revealing the cultural politics through their relationships.

 

撰文DU Ruini

 

The nature of intimacy, being private and obscured, often leads to the absence of first-hand ethnography. Dark intimacy that is purchased, violent, or injurious, poses a further methodological difficulty in the investigation. In this circumstance, a range of cultural texts contribute important ethnographic insights to Prof. Sun Wanning’s studies of the intimate lives of the marginalized. Considered as second-hand ethnography, the textual material is produced and mediated by a diversity of “surrogate ethnographers”, requiring a critical analysis in and among the texts, for instance, the discursive privilege they each possess, different agendas and readers, as well as the tension arising among them.

Prof. Sun examines various aspects of the texts and suggests four main discursive relationships: contrast, collaboration, coalition, and convergence. For example, contrast is reflected in the disparity between the narratives by different media. State media and commercial media adopt a normative framework in their commentaries on migrant women workers as part-time sex workers. The documented intimacy is simplified as a transgression, with what has truly constituted the women’s plights and decisions left undiscussed. Contrasting such an approach is a sex worker’s storytelling in an NGO’s newsletter, which offers a glimpse of a woman’s emotions, struggles, and the certain familial, political, and economic circumstances she faces to decide on her body and sexual capital. While in some literary works included in Prof. Sun’s studies, a different relationship defined as collaboration can be discovered. From novels depicting migrant workers’ dark intimacy to poems based on the real lives of sex workers, these texts approach the intimate lives of the marginalized from their own perspective instead of moral judgements, with the sensibility of the political and economic influences. These texts support and enhance the legitimacy of one another.

The normative framework of transgression neglects individuals’ dilemmas and the socio-economic contexts, typecasting and stigmatizing the marginalized. Prof. Sun thus argues for a critical socio-economic approach to intimacy that explains how socio-economic inequality pervasively affects individuals’ intimate lives, as well as the studies of the discursive relationships that contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of cultural politics.

 

撰文 FONG Yuk Ping

 

13 Apr 2022 (Wed)  Mini-Conference of Thesis of MA in Gender Studies 2022

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在2022年4月13日的週三性別研討會上,來自香港中文大學性別研究課程的七位修課式研究生同學分享了她們的畢業論文研究專案。

董雪吟同學通過對六位小紅書健身博主的392篇博文進行文本分析,從女性主義視角探討了她們對於內卷的實踐。她的研究結果發現,女性博主更多地談論性別不平等,表達對內卷行為的焦慮;而男性博主則較少使用後女性主義的情緒勞動話語,他們的行為也更符合內卷的定義。

緱欣寧同學選取了香港唯一的民間婦女基金會HER FUND進行案例研究。在針對HER FUND的工作空間和活動進行參與式觀察的過程中,她發現 HER FUND的工作人員和參加他們工作坊的參觀者之間存在扁平化的等級制度。 此外,HER FUND還通過照顧來自不同背景的女性並邀請她們分享經驗,創造了一種溫暖好客的情感文化,並注重女性參與者性別與階級的交叉性。


羅西陸同學的研究從性別角度探討了網路社交與青少年抑鬱之間的關係。她的研究假設使用整合分析的方法,通過從相關實證研究中提取效應值,探索線上社交在多大程度上以及如何影響青少年抑鬱。她的研究目前處於清理資料階段,此研究假設線上社交對青少年抑鬱的影響作用會受到線上社交媒體類型和青少年受試者背景的影響。

孫一寧同學的研究關注中國農村拆遷家庭如何將補償財產分配給子女。通過對山東省李村的18個農村拆遷家庭進行訪談,她的研究發現大多數農村父母仍然持有強烈的父權觀念,傾向於將拆遷房分配給兒子而非女兒。這項研究將為討論城市化對父權制的影響提供理論和實證意義。

史昕予同學的研究關注在COVID-19疫情期間長期分居的深港跨境已婚夫婦,通過二手資料以及深入訪談資料,她的研究探討這些跨境夫婦,尤其是妻子,如何受到社會流動限制政策的影響。她根據丈夫和妻子的職業與家庭取向將這些夫妻分為四種類型,並發現這些女性在這一時期面臨著越來越多的家庭負擔,四類夫妻之間的差異反映了個人主義和家庭主義對夫妻雙方的影響程度有所不同。

楊知語同學通過對二手調查資料進行分析,以及對處於跨境戀愛關係中的女性進行深入訪談,探討這些女性在COVID-19 大流行下的移民應對策略和決策過程。她的研究以捆綁遷移理論和關係動盪理論為理論框架,認為強制分離的社會流動政策與親密關係中的挑戰和衝突密切相關。同時,這些女性不同的應對策略不僅反映了她們的經濟考慮,還反映了情侶雙方的性別觀念與關係狀態。

周珊珊同學的研究對比分析了近期兩部中國女性動畫《青蛇劫起》和《眷思量》中與性別相關的內容,以展示權力和女性氣質在中國動畫電影中的表現和發展。她發現兩部電影中的女主角都呈現出傳統的女性氣質和男性氣質混合的特徵,但男性導演和女性導演對此有不同的解讀。女性導演的《眷思量》對女主角的刻畫雖然不完美,但更寫實;男性導演的《青蛇劫起》,則呈現了穿著誇張、突出女性身體的女主角,反襯出男性的凝視。

研討會的最後,香港中文大學性別研究課程修課式研究生專案主任Prof. Ivy Wong對同學們的報告給出評論。Prof. Wong總結到,所有同學的研究題目都非常清晰和有趣,並且涵蓋了廣泛的研究領域,從案例分析到整合分析的研究方法也非常多樣化。她鼓勵同學們志存高遠,考慮發表她們的研究成果。祝賀所有進行報告的同學,並祝願她們的研究一切順利!

撰文 Li Lulu

 

 6 Apr 2022 (Wed)  The affective practice of love: the imagined subjective protest body on LIHKG in Anti-ELAB Movement

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在4月6日的週三研討會上,來自香港中文大學性別研究課程的哲學碩士生黃嘉晞女士分享了她的有關LIHKG用戶在反對逃犯條例修訂草案運動期間的話語實踐與性別化協商的研究。

依託於多樣的跨學科方法,黃女士採用研究聚合的策略作為主要方法論,包括媒體與數位民族志,主題話語分析、4組半結構化訪談和3組後續跟進的個人訪談。由於LIHKG用戶性別化的情感實踐與情境體驗是多層次且多方面的,該講座挑戰了長期以來占主導地位的將抗爭的身體理解為異性戀的單薄想像,提出了有關個體如何在日常反抗中同正在生成變化的集體進行協商的另一種解讀。

儘管幻想中的異性戀情侶與異性戀本位的性別分工為抗爭主體的矛盾本質貢獻了情感的連貫性,該研究發現,每一個獨立的身體都是由異質性別體驗所組成的動態節點。黃女士的結論認為,將性別化具有主體性的抗爭身體視為一個斷裂開放,充滿可能性的場域,是理解協商所涉及的動態過程,進而理解這種有關愛的情緒實踐的核心。

 

撰文 Zhang Yuqi

 

 30 Mar 2022 (Wed)  Analyzing Female-Victim Intimate Partner Homicide in China via Hierarchical Models and Data Mining Methods

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在3月30日的週三研討會上,來自香港中文大學性別研究項目及社會學系的碩士研究生顧雨璇女士分享了她的研究:“通過分層模型和數據挖掘方法分析中國的女性受害者親密伴侶殺人案”。
由總體數據而言,儘管全球範圍內謀殺犯罪率呈下降趨勢,但親密伴侶間的兇殺案,特別是受害者為女性的親密伴侶兇殺犯罪率較為穩定。尤其在中國,由家庭暴力致使的離婚申訴案件中,高達91.41%的施暴者是男性。基於這一背景,顧女士的研究提出了一個整合傳統的改善性(amelioration)和反彈性(backlash)的理論,為現存的不一致的結論提供了可能的解釋。並在中國大陸經濟與文化水準差異大的省份間進行了實證研究。
顧女士選取了來自中國裁判文書網的11310個故意殺人案件,並使用分層模型和數據挖掘方法進行分析。研究結果表明:(1)就性別平等的工具性維度而言,在婦女賦權水準從低到高的過程中,反擊過程可能占主導地位;(2)性別平等的文化維度與FV-IPH案件數量之間的關系符合倒U型的假設,即在短期內有反彈效應,但在長期內會有改善效應。通過利用11310起兇殺案的詳細資訊,本研究開創性地分析了中國大陸地區的FV-IPH,並為研究者提供了一種利用文本挖掘技術和層次模型,整合結構性性別不平等和個案特徵的有效範式。

撰文 SUN Yining, SHI Xinyu

 

23 Mar 2022 (Wed) Gendered Market Activities among Female Entrepreneurs in China: Case Study from Two Inland Provinces

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在2022年3月23日的週三性別座談會上,香港中文大學性別研究課程及社會學系的博士候選人李露露分享了她的研究——“中國女性創業者的性別化商業行為:對兩個內陸省份的案例研究”。中國自2016年推行了“大眾創業,萬眾創新”的政策,為女性創業帶來了前所未有的機遇。然而,創業通常被認為是以男性為中心的活動,並且主要集中於經濟發達的沿海地區,內陸地區的女性創業經驗在過往研究中僅獲得較少的關注。基於這一背景,李露露對41位內陸地區中小城市的女性創業者進行了深度訪談,探究了她們的創業動機,並分析了她們在創業過程中遇到的性別化機遇與挑戰。研究將女性創業者歸為四類:在以經濟原因為創業主要動機的女性中,“有信心”的女性創業者們獲得了來自家庭的支持和當地資源的扶持,而與之相比,另一些“有理想”的女性則需面臨著缺少本土社會網路和婚戀壓力的困境。在以家庭因素為主要創業動機的女性中,一部分人從家庭中獲得了充分的情感和經濟支持,使得她們“順理成章”地嘗試新的商業機會;而另一些人,則是在“機緣巧合”下開始了自主創業,她們希望通過創業尋求自我價值的同時履行傳統的家庭性別角色。研究結果表明,女性對個人職業理想的追求和家庭原因的考量是影響她們創業決定的關鍵。相較於沿海發達地區,這些內陸地區的女性創業者們在更為保守的社會環境下積極地探索商業機會,調動本土資源,塑造了性別、階層和地緣相互交織的獨特創業經歷。

撰文ZHOU Siyuan, GU Yuxuan

  

16 Mar 2022 (Wed)  Becoming Insurance Agents in Hong Kong Career Choice and Social Mobility among Highly Educated Women from Mainland China

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在2022年3月16日的週三性別座談會上,香港中文大學性別研究課程及社會學系的博士候選人周思媛分享了她的研究——“成為香港的保險代理人:中國內地高學歷女性的職業選擇和社會流動”。近十年來,香港保險行業重視內地市場的業務拓展,這一趨勢吸引了大批高學歷的內地女性持IANG簽證到香港開展保險代理人的工作。通過與32位元女性代理保險人的深度訪談,周思媛探究了她們進入保險行業的招聘過程,以及為選擇成為保險代理人的原因。她從結構與個人層面分析了其中的性別因素,發現女性保險代理人常因為被認為具有仔細、耐心等傳統的女性特質而被錄用。保險行業的性別優勢能夠幫助她們更好地成為獨立職業女性,回應不斷發展的社會性別期待。但是,在運用跨境資源實現個人職業理想的過程中,她們面臨著來自“女性”及“移民”身份的雙重困境,這揭示了女性的職業選擇依然受到父權社會性別分工的影響,並伴隨著職場和家庭層面中的結構性不平等。

撰文YANG Zhiyu

  

9 Mar 2022 (Wed)  Single-Sex Schooling and Students’ Interpersonal Development

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 在3月9日的周三性别研討會上,香港中文大學性別研究專業的博士研究生施韻Sylvia分享了她關於單一性別教育與學生個人發展的研究。
作為一種制度化的性別隔離模式,單一性別教育最初是為了彌補女孩缺乏教育及其他世俗原因所建立的。如今,這種模式的教育仍然很普遍,並在近幾年中再次流行。
然而,單一性別教育是一種有爭議的教育形式。一些人認為它對男孩和女孩的教育都有不同程度、不同方面的好處,另一些人則反對以上觀點。
通過回顧群體發展理論與同伴社會化理論,施女士的研究致力於回答以下研究問題:單一性別教育和混合性別教育下的學生是否在性別相關認知層面有差異?單一性別教育和混合性別教育的學生在與同性和異性的相處中是否有差異?當單一性別教育的學生畢業並進入混合性別的環境後,這種差異(如有)會不會改變?
在橫向研究中,兩組參與者樣本包含香港單性別學校和男女同校的男女生。第一組樣本包括2059名高中生,第二組是456名大學生。前一組在教室完成調查問卷,而後一組在實驗室完成。關於評估量表,在單性別高中裡,性別更為顯著。此外,單性別高中的學生擁有異性及親近朋友的比例較男女同校高中的學生更低。並且,單性別高中和大學中的學生更易在混合性別環境中感到焦慮,但這在大學生中並不顯著。
在縱向研究中,施女士設置了兩條時間線,兩段時間對應的分別是高中的最後一年,以及畢業後。兩條時間線的時間間隔為16.62個月。研究所抽取的樣本涵蓋了超過100所香港本地高中,研究變量則是包含了人口特徵、性別顯著性、性別刻板印象等。本研究表明,學校裡的性別隔離會影響學生的性別認知和社會成就,包括性別刻板印象、友誼、性取向等。儘管這些影響會隨著時間逐漸消失,但單一性別學校的學生在畢業後,在混合性別的生活中的社交技巧較為缺乏。關於單一性別教育所帶來的影響,還有許多問題等待解答,尤其是對學生非學術成就方面的影響。

撰文 GAO Xinning, ZHOU Shanshan, ZHANG Kunyu

  

16 Feb 2022 (Wed) Politics of Dating Apps

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在2月16日的周三性別研討會上,香港中文大學新聞與傳播學院助理教授CHAN Lik Sam通過Zoom在線講座,為我們講解了他關於「約會應用中的政治學」的研究。

運用深入訪談和批判性的方法,Prof. CHAN, Lik Sam對其身邊使用約會應用的朋友進行深入交談,了解他們使用這些軟件的動機,分析他們使用軟件的經歷與體驗,將約會應用程序用戶的解釋作為重點,最後Prof. CHAN建立起了約會軟件與個體政治之間的聯繫。他認為約會軟件不僅僅是一個尋求浪漫或勾搭的平臺,更重要的是,它是一個重新體現性別和同性戀政治的舞臺。

同時,Prof. CHAN從性別、同性戀和技術研究的跨學科文獻中汲取營養,研究約會應用程序用戶如何利用其社會地位所特有的技術能力。他提出了 "網絡化的性公眾" 作為一個統一的概念來捕捉新興的約會應用程序文化的動態,並建議學者和學生在未來採用交叉性的思維進一步研究這一全球現象。

他指出,我們需要呼籲為維護社會權利而鬥爭。異性戀社會以外的空間已經通過約會應用得到了較大的關註,如果網絡性話題是潛在的,那麼通過約會軟件來建立我們的身份認同會帶來一個更加性別平等和同性戀友好的世界。比如,使用應用程序為女性尋找「性」,實際上是幫助她們了解自己的一種方式。

展望未來的研究,Prof. CHAN認為如果想要注意人們對於約會應用或行為的不同解釋,就應該採取交叉思考,事實上,每個網絡上的性公眾至少擁有兩種身份——男性和女性,同時我們還需要考慮年齡、城鄉地區等因素,這些尚未討論的交叉點也許會影響到用戶對應用的使用,需要我們進一步的研究與探討。

 

 撰文:LUO Xilu, GAO Yuting, XIA Mohan

 

 19 Jan 2022 (Wed) Queering Chinese Kinship: Queer Public Culture in Globalizing China

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有感於西方酷兒理論所強調的出櫃及自由主義等概念不盡反映其自身及中國同志的經歷,宋教授(Prof. SONG Jin)著眼於中國大陸同志、其經歷(situated reality)及相關網上公共文化,以建立解拆並理解華語地區酷兒親屬關係的理論,並提出以酷兒批評的視角(Queer criticality)取代單純的批評常態(critiquing normality)以考慮現實生活中人們的爭扎和真實狀況,從而重新思考當下的現實並提供具建設性的分析。

宋教授透過分析在Bilibili上同志影片博客的「一起向家人出櫃」(Coming out together to the family)的策略,提出有別於YouTube上的同志影片博客單獨向其支持者出櫃,中國大陸的博客較常以與其同性伴侶一起見家長的模式作為其出櫃影片,反映其酷兒自我(Queer Selfhood)的建構並非完全取決於個人意志(自己向觀眾出櫃),當中更常牽涉到與血緣家庭的談判和角力(家人接納其性取向或不接納)。

他指出Bilibili的商業同志影片生產及消費是矛盾的文化政治(Ambivalent cultural politics):既使同志得以呈現,亦限制了酷兒身份的想象。他分析了觀眾在跳幕上的反應並指出,「一起向家人出櫃」影片大受觀眾歡迎,許多同志影片博客亦因而更使用類似的模式拍片以確立其同志/酷兒定位。作為商業化的自我製作(self-making)和自我品牌(self-branding)的過程,這類影片呈現了既有的陽光同志形象/公式,鞏固了單偶制、一/零、公/婆的二元結構,大大限制了其他酷兒身份或實踐的想像。

宋教授總結中指出,於中國大陸商業化和酷兒政治存在著矛盾的交織。他認為在公共空間有限的情況下,更需要認真看待商業中的酷兒文化和政治,稱之為「非自由同性戀正典」(illiberal homonormativity)。

 撰文WONG Ka Hei

 

2021年春季

香港中文大學性別研究課程、性別研究中心合辦

03 Mar 2021 (Wed) 剖析中國西南地區宮頸癌預防實踐中的風險概念

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2021317日的週三性別座談會上,香港中文大學性別研究課程及社會學系的博士生候選人唐琳女士分享了她正在進行的博士研究性別經歷與家庭機構的關係如何影響與構建中國女性線上創業的動機。

在過去十年裡,互聯網的快速發展見證了中國女性比男性更多地參與電子商務一事。不僅淘寶50%以上的賣家是女性(阿裡研究,2015),微信個人賣家也有70%以上是女性(新民晚報,2017關於創業動機,以前的研究表明,男子更注重經濟,婦女更注重成就和家庭。因此婦女更有可能涉足與家庭有關的企業領域。此外,家庭工作的動態一直是影響婦女創業的重要因素。家庭的組成與結構對婦女企業家獲得和調動創業資源也起到了深遠的影響。

通過深度訪談和網上民族志的調查,唐琳女士在她的研究中同時考察了婦女在其出生家庭和婚姻家庭方面的創業經驗,重點關注一個更特殊的群體:那些受過良好教育的年輕女性,她們是其出生家庭的獨生女,生活在較富裕的東部和南部沿海地區。採取生命過程視角研究大學畢業、正式就業、同居或婚姻、生育及育儿等四項人生重要事件,唐琳女士對婦女參與網上創業的比例相對較高的問題進行了更具動態敏感性和多層面的分析。

通過使用「拉入」和「推出」來構建她的分析,唐琳女士在以上這些年輕女性的地位轉變過程中,發現了兩組「拉推效應」將她們「拉入」網上創業的領域,或將她們「推出」領域。作為都市中的獨生女,她們最初研究生課程畢業阶段被「拉入」網上創業領域成為代購,被認為是一種自發的行為,以彌補她們父母對海外高等教育的投資。然而,在她們畢業回到家鄉後,由於社會對女性从事穩定理想職業如公務員、教師、行政人員的期望她們開始離開網上創業的領域。正如她們及其父母所認為的那樣,網上創業只能是一種暫時性和過渡性的選擇。

如果第一組「拉推效應」發生在她們的出生家庭,第二組效應則出現在她們(現有或未來)的婚姻家庭當她們開始與婚姻伴侶同居時,她們可能會被「拉入」網上創業以賺取額外的錢,特別是當她們伴侶的經濟情況不穩定時。然而,網上創業的動機無法提高婦女的權力地位。雖然部分女性的伴侶會提供言語鼓勵或實際行動支援,以幫助她們經營線上業務,但這些目標終歸是物質主義的。一旦她們懷孕並有了自己的孩子,育兒上的義務就會把她們從網上創業中再「推」出來。正如唐琳女士所觀察到的,在這生命阶段女性的線上創業動機急劇下降。對於那些仍然在堅持的女性來說,她們必須在家庭中的有償工作和線上經濟活動之間進行權衡。

撰文香港中文大學性別研究課程博士候選人彭依伊、吳玥涵
及香港浸會大學語言學博士生王騰

 

03 Mar 2021 (Wed) 剖析中國西南地區宮頸癌預防實踐中的風險概念

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在3月3日的週三性別座談會上,來自香港中文大學性別研究課程和人類學的博士生吳玥涵從“風險是對當下環境認知的產物”的角度出發,從關係入手,為我們剖析了“風險”作為一種概念是如何在中國西南地區針對宮頸癌預防的實踐中被構建的。

她首先介紹了注射HPV疫苗作為一種在一定範圍內能夠預防宮頸癌的手段在中國的特殊情況:一方面,中國許多尋求注射疫苗的女性已經同時具備了女性-病人-消費者的三重身份,她們甚至願意也有能力為此去到香港等地,在承受高昂的時間和金錢成本的前提下完成HPV疫苗的注射。另一方面,儘管如此,中國仍然缺乏足夠的醫藥基礎設施和針對健康保障的投入。由於宮頸癌導致死亡的案例有將近百分之九十發生在發展中國家,而其中有五分之一就發生在中國。

吳玥涵分析,在中國,癌症預防在政府-醫院-個人三方的互動之下進行。政府一方面推動公共健康建設的發展,一方面卻又將責任置於個人之上。在醫院的層面而言,在醫學技術不斷發展、相關專家不斷增多的同時,醫患之間的信任危機卻難以解決。除此之外,擁有更高技術和更好設備的專家對更底層的醫生也缺乏信任,甚至由於長期高負荷地工作,醫生對自己本身的工作狀態都充滿懷疑。從參與宮頸癌預防的中國女性個人來說,她們作為風險的中心,既要承擔對社會的責任,又要扮演家庭中屬於她的角色,而她個人需求的重要性則往往被放在前兩份重擔之後。

通過在重慶一家醫院所進行的長達12個月的田野調查,吳玥涵發現,與其說宮頸癌是屬於貧窮的癌症,不如說它揭示了中國社會正在發生的社會變化和人們在社會發展中對更美好未來的嚮往。免費的癌症篩查只能在特定的時間段、在戶口所在地獲得,而農村女性作為宮頸癌的高發人群,她們之中的許多人往往在城市工作,只有在特定的假期才能回到家鄉進行篩查。中國宮頸癌篩查這樣的獨特困境應該在中國社會現今的發展變化中得到解釋。在觀察醫院是如何應對和HPV有關的宮頸癌患者時,演講者發現,生育作為核心的概念影響著醫生如何對病人的案例進行處理。如果病人年紀較輕且尚未生育,醫生往往傾向于選用更保守的治療方式。

吳玥涵從關係入手,認為可以從風險的主體、主體處在風險中和風險的關係三個元素來探討中國女性在這樣特定的環境中是如何應對風險的。她總結道,女性在處理她們和HPV的關係時,總是在同其中的不確定性打交道。在中國,針對HPV感染的汙名化仍然存在,社會輿論往往將其同私生活混亂關聯起來。而雖然男女都有可能感染HPV,但被汙名化指責的物件卻只是女性——在現在的中國,只有女性能夠接受HPV檢測。即便有女性懷疑是她們的異性伴侶將病毒傳染給了她們,對此她們也無從驗證。另外一種不確定性還在於感染HPV和宮頸癌本身複雜的關係中:並不是每個感染HPV的患者都會發展至癌症的階段,而每當遇到壞的結果,病人則往往會懷疑是自己的錯。由此,女性從遭受風險的主體變成了風險所在的中心,因為她們承受著對自己給家人帶來風險的恐懼。

-由性別研究課程文學碩士生張喻撰寫


20 Jan 2021 (Wed) 浴火重生:中国同妻、婚姻欺诈和抵抗

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120日的週三性別座談會上,香港城市大學社會及行為科學系助理教授——曾玉霞教授分享了在2015年至2019年期間所進行的關於中國社會「同妻」的研究。「同妻」指在不知情情況下與同性戀男性步入婚姻的異性戀女性,她們通常生育後才發現丈夫的性取向秘密。曾教授應用死亡政治學理論,並採用民族誌方法,調研了59位來自中國天津與東北部、受過不同程度教育的「同妻」,闡述了「同妻」於社會性死亡窘境中的機動性。

曾教授先簡述由哲學家Achille Mbembe的死亡政治學理論(necropolitics)所發展出的概念框架,概括了「同妻」面對的社會困境。她指出,弱勢群體由於被主流體制排外,得不到法律保障、文化認同或基本人權等等,從而步入社會性死亡。然而,曾教授也強調,「同妻」在選擇離婚、尋求愛滋病治療及在網絡與非政府組織的協助下,依然可見其能動性的空間。

曾教授指出,教育程度不高的「同妻」會基於家庭、經濟甚至社會污名的考量,而選擇繼續維繫婚姻。另一方面,受過更高等教育程度的「同妻」則會分別在法庭外或法庭內處理離婚。選擇庭外處理離婚的「同妻」,面對社會地位與權力薄弱的挑戰。提出離婚訴訟的「同妻」也遭遇困難,中國婚姻法不但不承認同性戀的存在,男性在獲孩子撫養權與共同財產的分配上更有優勢。然而,離婚成為她們得到尊嚴、伸張正義的出路,以此掙脫名存實亡的婚姻,開始新生活。

曾教授也提及,不幸經由丈夫而感染愛滋病的「同妻」,儘管疾病使她們有輕生的想法,但在家人與孩子的關心與支持下,則會主動尋求醫療協助及積極治療。「同妻」也會主動接觸非政府組織,以獲專業法律意見;在社交媒體網絡上也能瞥見「同妻」群組的蹤影,互相提供資訊,協助彼此。

曾教授的研究旨在為政策制定者、非政府組織在協助「同妻」方面提供新見解,提升對現行婚姻法律缺陷的關注,也期望能為負著「同妻」身份的女性,及為孝順義務而組織異性戀家庭的男同性戀者去污名化.

-由性別研究課程文學碩士生李敏婷及徐然撰寫

 


2020年秋季

香港中文大學性別研究課程、性別研究中心合辦

18 Nov 2020 (Wed) 小蜜蜂不要停:中國城市地產銷售中的臨時工作、性別化技能和過度流動

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2020年11月18日週三,來自香港理工大學應用社會科學系的助理教授戰洋,在香港中文大學性別研究課程講師曹文傑博士的主持下,開展了名為“小蜜蜂不要停:中國城市地產銷售中的臨時工作、性別化技能和過度流動”的zoom網路講座。戰洋教授運用社會科學的研究方法,分享了她對於這些“小蜜蜂”在工作時遇到、面對的各種不同情形的看法。

隨著中國二、三線城市房地產市場的擴大,許多具有農村背景的中年女工因具備刻苦耐勞等性別化特質進入到房地產銷售行業中,承擔“渠道”工作。與工廠、服務業或家政行業工作不同,渠道工作本質上是流動的。這些臨時工被稱為“小蜜蜂”,她們不斷在城市中向潛在客戶宣傳地產。本講座的重點是這些中年“小蜜蜂”的招募、培訓、流動路徑和工作經驗。

戰洋教授首先從“小蜜蜂”又被稱為“渠道工”、“拓客”等名字開始解釋她們的工作性質,她們在房地產行業的營銷中,以派發傳單、拉客戶等類似于硬性廣告的推廣方式為她們的雇傭者(即房地產方)推薦房產。

隨後,戰洋教授解釋了從女性主義的角度,為何會關注“小蜜蜂”這類女性勞動群體,涉及到工作中的酬勞支付問題、職業道德與倫理問題及一些基本設想,從而引申到“小蜜蜂”群體在工作時遇到的一些女性進退兩難的困境。戰洋教授曾在重慶進行過實地考察與研究,因為重慶具備了一定的發展戰略,並且出現了以房地產為中心的城市擴張情況。在這個研究中,她訪談了兩位房地產發展商、兩位“拓客”部門的經理和三十六位“小蜜蜂”,並分析了近年來紙媒、自營商以及跨媒介在拓客發展上的推動作用;同時,她也關注到拓客們出現的原因與房地產市場的競爭手段息息相關。

除此之外,戰洋教授在關於“小蜜蜂”們的人員組成中,探討了她們的招聘問題,年齡分層問題和城市/農村戶口情況等。在經過招募和培訓後,“小蜜蜂”們會以“兵團戰”的方式從電銷、地推、守盤和團購等路徑開展工作。她非常關注重慶“小蜜蜂”中的中年婦女們,在工作中所面對的性別化技巧與經驗,與她們的活動區域地圖相結合,形成“第一密集區”、“第二密集區”和“輻射區域”。地圖中的這些圈層和點位(加油站、商超等),非常形象地體現了她們工作的圖景與大概流動路徑,這種流動性也具有一定的反身意義。

最後,戰洋教授分析了在市場競爭日益官僚化的情形下,“小蜜蜂”們的行業壓力、長時間工作負擔以及人事變動(解雇率、辭職率)等數據。並且,在流行病疫情改變了社會運轉模式的環境中,“小蜜蜂”們不僅工作受到一定的影響,還承受著來自社會、家庭等不同地方的負面情緒。戰洋教授希望在當代中國,如何理解“小蜜蜂”這種“非必要”工作的存在,是十分需要成為人們去關注和研究的議題。

撰寫者:香港中文大學性別研究課程博士生彭依伊 Yiyi Peng

 

28 Oct 2020 (Wed) 婚姻是盡孝,個人選擇還是社會期待?探索上海、香港和東京女性的單身經歷差異

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在11月11日的性別研討會上,來自香港中文大學日本研究學系的教授Lynne Y. Nakano分享了她對於上海、香港和東京三個城市中單身女性的研究。Nakano教授使用人類學的研究方法,採訪了三個城市中的單身女性,並分析整合了這些經歷的相似之處:一方面她們被期望在學校和社會工作中表現良好,另一方面,又被期望以家庭為重。但三個城市的單身女性在不同社會背景下,面臨的情況又各不相同。

Nakano教授首先介紹了東亞城市中單身的基本特點,以及女性結婚年齡普遍上升的原因。在上海、香港和東京這三個城市中,未婚者同居率低,戀愛率低,擁有性經驗的人數比例低,婚外生育率低,且通常同性關係被高度污名化。與此同時,隨著市場就業機會擴大,女性傾向於發展事業,婚姻往往使得女性在職場面臨歧視和壓力,因此生育率也隨之下降。

Nakano教授隨後展示了兩種婚姻的社會模型,責任模型(Duty Model)以及同伴模型(Companionate Model)。她研究發現,中國社會偏向於責任模型,香港社會為同伴模型,而日本為二者的混合模式。因此在上海,適齡結婚是一種普遍現象,女性認為婚姻代表孝道,是代際照料關係的切入點;香港在同伴模型下,認為婚姻代表著個人的選擇,家庭環境也允許她們保持單身;東京女性通常會選擇在社會期望的年齡段中完成婚姻,她們認為婚姻代表著一種社會責任。

在婚姻之外,女性還必須承擔家庭照顧者的角色。單身女性往往不會因國家言論或政策改變婚姻選擇,但她們會通過參與家庭事務的方式來彌補這一缺憾,履行更多的家庭照顧責任。上海女性會積極強調自己對家庭和國家做出的貢獻,使單身更具合理性;在香港社會單身並不會引起道德譴責,但女性在具有收入的情況下必須看顧家庭;東京女性以經濟獨立為榮,她們認為養育年邁的父母是自己應盡的道德義務,但生育卻不是必須的。

Nakano教授還指出了一些現存的問題,單身女性的家庭成員往往認為單身是暫時的,所以並未為她們做長久的準備。此外,東亞女性保持單身並非個人主義的表達,而是為了增強整個家庭的經濟,完成家人的社會期望,她們承擔了大部分家務勞動卻並未得到應有的經濟支持,加劇了財富分配不均。最後,社會對大齡單身女性仍保持著負面的刻板印象,她們不得不通過強化個人的貢獻,發明新的方式來實現女性的家庭責任。

-由性別研究課程博士生李露露及文學碩士生成思穎撰寫

 

28 Oct 2020 (Wed) 構想城市:與家政工、尋求庇護者和少數族裔進行的基於藝術的研究

 

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在10月28日的周三性別座談會上,香港大學社會學系助理教授Prof. Julie HAM和香港大學社會學系研究助理Ms. Merina SUNUWAR通過Zoom在線講座,分享了“構想城市:與家政工、尋求庇護者和少數族裔進行的基於藝術的研究”。

 

通過製作並分析參與性視頻,兩位講者圍繞兩個與家政工、尋求庇護者和少數族裔進行的藝術項目:“把女性移工的聲音視覺化”(Visualizing the Voices of Migrant Women Workers)和“可持續的星期日時裝:家政工升級再造潮流”(Sustainable Sunday Couture: Domestic Workers Upcycling Fashion)展開討論,並探究其中情感框架的作用。

參與性視頻是指由社區而不是專業製作人製作的視頻,打破了原有的參與者與研究者之間的權力關係,取而代之的是“人際關係的節奏”(relational rhythms)。 Prof. Julie HAM著重講述了“把女性移工的聲音視覺化”項目中三種關鍵情緒中的兩個:感激之情與驚惶不安,將其分別與“參與者同組織者之間的化學反應”和“重新書寫城市”相聯結。 Ms. Merina SUNUWAR通過向我們詳細介紹家政工、少數族裔的參與式實驗,分析其中角色與場景的作用與變化,證實參與式試驗方法可進一步分析城市居民的新角色維度(experiential dimensions),其目的不在於減少或緩解有益的緊張關係,而是幫助城市居民在適應新角色時認識到並利用此種情感關係(emotional rhythms)。 Prof. Julie HAM最後指出,在參與性視頻中權力關係的轉變能夠促使新的聲音和故事出現在人們眼前,而這些可能繼續轉變成知識被生產出來。

由王亦鳴、鐘圩燕(性別研究課程碩士學生)撰寫

 

 

21 Oct 2020 (Wed) 婚前墮胎:後社會主義中國的生育政治

 

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在10月21日的性別研討會上,來自嶺南大學社會學與社會政策學院的研究助理教授——黎苑姍博士分享了她從2013年至2019年進行的關於中國成人婚前墮胎問題的研究。黎苑姍博士主要聚焦於沿海工業城市中來自欠發達地區的人群,使用民族誌和深度訪談的方法揭示中國女性的非婚生殖經歷,並使用內容分析法考察中國的墮胎文化話語。

黎苑姍博士認為,研究成人婚前墮胎問題為研究後社會主義的中國社會中未婚女性及其親密關系伴侶、父母之間的關系提供了一扇窗。這些關系進而反映了女性作為生殖主體的自我如何與宏觀社會結構發生關聯,並交互作用於女性的日常生活中。

在“完整人生”規劃普遍存在的情況下,導致女性墮胎的個人因素包括女孩-婦女二元敘事之間的掙紮、對倉促婚姻的抗拒、對成為單身母親的恐懼、對安穩愛巢的向往、對優質嬰兒的期待。計劃生育時期“優生優育”的宣傳理念尚且深入人心,女性又背負著理想公民和賢妻良母的雙重社會期待,加之中產階級的生活圖景日益與有關和諧家庭的想象相捆綁,它們共同構成了女性墮胎決策時的現實考量。

黎苑姍博士的研究表明,許多女性會有意識地把婚前墮胎作為一次檢驗伴侶的機會,以視其對該段親密關系的態度,以及是否成熟可靠、有成為一個合格的丈夫與父親的能力。儘管男性伴侶的意見在妊娠中也至關重要,但女性自身的決策才是決定性的。一些男性伴侶在女方懷孕期間會主動承擔家務勞動,在做出墮胎決定的過程中也表現出脆弱的一面,體現了親密關系互動中性別角色的流動,傳統性別的界限並非不可僭越。

代際關系互動亦在墮胎的決策過程中呈現出復雜的態勢。黎苑姍博士界定出四種父母-女兒的互動模式:父母意見缺位的互動模式,參考父母意見的互動模式,咨詢父母意見的互動模式,以及聽任父母幹預的互動模式。研究同時表明,有部分女性認為,與父母的關系比與伴侶的關系更加牢靠,因此在決策中會優先考慮父母而不是伴侶的意見。

黎苑姍博士指出,在中國婚前性行為普遍化、城市約會文化成熟化的背景下,女性在性和親密關系的問題中已取得相當的決策權。然而,與其說這種墮胎自由是國家對女性權利的保護,不如說它是國家現代化過程中的一個意外收獲。墮胎是女性行使身體自主權的重要體現,但與此同時,墮胎也是目前女性在職場和社會中血拼出一席之地的重要手段。隨著中國社會分層和社會不確定性增多,女性生育自主的實現仍然道阻且長。

本次線上研討會隸屬於周三性別研討會系列,由香港中文大學性別研究項目與性別研究中心共同舉辦。

( 由王騰,及性别研究课程文学硕士学生易雪曼撰写)

 

14 Oct 2020 (Wed) 中國在全球崛起背景下的跨國婚姻

 

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在10月14日的周三性別座談會上,聖湯瑪斯大學正義與社會研究學系助理教授Prof. LIU Monica 透過Zoom在線講座,講解了她自2008年起開展的關於「中國全球崛起下的跨國婚姻」的研究。運用深入訪談和參與式觀察的研究方法,Prof. LIU 調研了61名使用網上跨國婚介服務的女性顧客。通過比較其中三個個案的人生軌跡和決策過程,Prof. LIU向我們剖析了在中國經濟崛起的背景下,不同社會經濟地位的中國女性對西方男性有著怎樣不同的想像,以及西方中等收入男性的優越地位如何被動搖。

Prof. LIU 指出,這些女性顧客大多曾經離婚,雖然同樣嚮往跨國移民婚姻,但背後的動機和最終的選擇與結局卻各自不同。她們當中有的自身經濟條件比較好,但因對中國男性缺乏信心而轉向外國婚姻市場以尋求 「真愛」,卻發現這些西方男性無法滿足她們對外貌或男性魅力的期望。有的則因背負經濟重擔,而希望通過移民婚姻改善生活質素, 但最終婚姻不幸福或者只能通過犧牲自主權來換取婚姻的成功。然而,「郵購新娘」的西方男性相對而言都有著同質性的背景。他們從事農業,製造業,或經營小生意,跟不上全球化的進程,往往在當地的婚姻市場上沒有競爭力,希望通過網上婚介尋找符合他們傳統性別觀念的女性對象,但漸漸失去對中上階層中國女性的吸引力。 Prof. LIU 認為,在全球資本佈局轉移和中國及其他亞洲國家崛起的背景下,西方男性的霸權和優越地位受到挑戰,運用交叉性的研究方法對進一步分析移民婚姻十分重要。

( 由性別研究課程博士生施韻,文學碩士學生李敏婷撰寫)

 

23 Sept 2020 (Wed) 發光還是消亡?:新自由主義日本下的女性經濟學與女性的經濟價值

 

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在9月23日的周三性別座談會上,新加坡國立大學社會學系人類學何水霖副教授通過ZOOM在線講座分享了名為《發光還是消亡?:新自由主義日本下的女性經濟學與女性的經濟價值》的研究。通過訪談和參與式觀察,何教授對日本180多名從事管理崗位的工作女性進行了調研,探討安倍晉三首相提出的“女性經濟學”策略是否加劇了女性在日本職場中的弱勢地位以及如何造成這些影響。

何教授指出,日本職業女性的諸多困境並未隨著經濟改革得到改善。大眾媒體上呈現的日本職業女性形象依然十分刻板。公司中的女經理人需要花費大量的時間和金錢與下屬們“下班飲酒”來保住職位。然而在苛刻的晉升條件下,升遷只為她們帶來了更多的工作量和有限的權威。 在公司,女性在機構重組時最容易被犧牲,並且更可能從事兼職工作。在國家層面,針對職場霸凌和騷擾的法令實際成為了雇主歧視女性雇員的合法工具。簡而言之,“女性經濟學”指導下的新自由主義經濟政策變革和隨之而來的立法完善未能真正為日本女性帶來福祉,而是加重了她們受到的職場隱性歧視,一定程度上固化了她們在父權社會中的性別角色。

(由性別研究課程博士生周思媛,文學碩士學生耿思然、劉戀弦撰寫)

 


2020年春季

香港中文大學性別研究課程、性別研究中心合辦

4 Mar 2019 (Wed) 耽美真人CP與自我規訓式審查

 

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香港中文大學性別研究課程於本周三舉辦線上性別研討會,本課程哲學碩士研究生王亦鳴向觀眾分享了關於耽美真人CP與自我規訓式審查的研究。王同學通過研究新浪微博平台上被網絡審查壓抑並重新塑造的耽美群體,探討圍繞網絡亞文化之間的互動,網絡審查對其影響,以及新的創造性之所在。這一研究填補並梳理了對立的網絡群體之間的復雜關系與表征的空白,並反思了網絡審查對於耽美亞文化生態的影響,並試圖尋找出路。228名觀眾註冊並參與了研討會,是本課程周三性別研討會參與人數最多的一次。

 

 

26 Feb 2019 (Wed) Desire for Sale: Live-streaming and DIY Pornography among Chinese Gay Micro-celebrities

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在2月26日的週三性別座談會上,來自澳門大學傳播系的博士後研究員——宋林博士通過ZOOM的在線講座,分享了他關於中國同志網紅直播及DIY色情影片的研究。藉由文化研究和媒體研究的路徑,宋林博士探討了中國地下同志色情“產業”的發展歷程、所處的特定社會政治環境、以及同志色情“產業”與中國網絡審查之間的複雜博弈。

據宋林博士介紹,中國的同志DIY色情影片產業發展很大程度上得益於社交媒體的發展,尤其是直播平台的流行。同時,互聯網傳播所特有的模糊性也幫助人們發展出各種各樣的迂迴策略,以躲避日漸嚴格的網絡審查。借用酷兒馬克思主義的分析框架,宋林博士將中國的同志DIY色情產業視作一種慾望經濟。儘管這是資本主義的產物,完全服從於市場邏輯,它卻在異性戀霸權、政府管制及公司資本主義的間隙之中野蠻生長,具備一定的顛覆現有秩序的潛力。

 


2019年秋季

香港中文大學性別研究課程、性別研究中心合辦

2 Oct 2019 (Wed) Refusing obliquely: On siren eun young jung and the three moments of performing in anomaly

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在10月2日的週三性別座談會上,來自嶺南大學文化研究系的尹水蓮教授(Prof. Soo Ryon Yoon)分享了其對南韓媒體與視覺藝術家鄭恩瑛siren及其「女性國劇」項目(2008-)的研究。「女性國劇」(Yeoseong Gukgeuk)的特點在於劇場中全部角色均由女性扮演,其在1950年代的南韓極盛一時,後來逐漸沒落。「女性國劇」的沒落與其全女班的特徵不無相關,因為異性戀正統的意識形態深深植根於韓國對於「真實的」國家文化遺產的想像之中,而「女性國劇」頗有顛覆意味的跨性別扮演則與這種國家主義下的主流話語相違背。

多年來,藝術家鄭恩瑛siren對「女性國劇」進行了一系列的研究、記錄、策展和創作。通過對這些作品的細讀,尹教授分析了「女性國劇」項目的酷兒策略:並非直接否認南韓現存的正統劇場體制,而是與其斡旋、從而在內部進行攪亂與反轉。尹教授從劇場歷史存檔、劇場傳統、及劇場的性別政治三個主題論述了鄭恩瑛的介入方式,討論其如何通過該項目質問了韓國劇場歷史的民族主義與異性戀正統邏輯,並為在劇場中復興酷兒的聲音打開了新的可能性。 

 

11 Sep 2019 (Wed) The performative effects of diagnosis: thinking gender, sexuality, and intimacy through diagnostic logics and politics

 

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在9月11日舉行的「週三性別研究座談會」中,瑞典卡爾斯塔德大學性別研究中心主任、性別研究高級講師塞巴斯蒂安·摩爾博士(Sebastian Mohr)分享了他的研究:The Performative Effects of Medical Diagnosis,從醫學診斷的角度切入,來思考性別、性與親密關係。他同時是香港中文大學性別研究課程2019年秋季的訪問學者。

摩爾博士開展了一項民族志研究,調查丹麥老兵對親密關係的理解與相關經歷。基於此研究成果,摩爾博士探討了如下問題:醫學診斷如何影響人們理解「親密關係中的自我」,此外,從醫學角度重新考量親密關係將會如何幫助人們探索、重塑性別關係和身體政治。

*獲取更多週三性別座談會信息,請點擊這裡

20201118日週三,來自香港理工大學應用社會科學系的助理教授戰洋,在香港中文大學性別研究課程講師曹文傑博士的主持下,開展了名為“小蜜蜂不要停:中國城市地產銷售中的臨時工作、性別化技能和過度流動”的zoom網路講座。戰洋教授運用社會科學的研究方法,分享了她對於這些“小蜜蜂”在工作時遇到、面對的各種不同情形的看法。

 

隨著中國二、三線城市房地產市場的擴大,許多具有農村背景的中年女工因具備刻苦耐勞等性別化特質進入到房地產銷售行業中,承擔“渠道”工作。與工廠、服務業或家政行業工作不同,渠道工作本質上是流動的。這些臨時工被稱為“小蜜蜂”,她們不斷在城市中向潛在客戶宣傳地產。本講座的重點是這些中年“小蜜蜂”的招募、培訓、流動路徑和工作經驗。

 

戰洋教授首先從“小蜜蜂”又被稱為“渠道工”、“拓客”等名字開始解釋她們的工作性質,她們在房地產行業的營銷中,以派發傳單、拉客戶等類似于硬性廣告的推廣方式為她們的雇傭者(即房地產方)推薦房產。

 

隨後,戰洋教授解釋了從女性主義的角度,為何會關注“小蜜蜂”這類女性勞動群體,涉及到工作中的酬勞支付問題、職業道德與倫理問題及一些基本設想,從而引申到“小蜜蜂”群體在工作時遇到的一些女性進退兩難的困境。戰洋教授曾在重慶進行過實地考察與研究,因為重慶具備了一定的發展戰略,並且出現了以房地產為中心的城市擴張情況。在這個研究中,她訪談了兩位房地產發展商、兩位“拓客”部門的經理和三十六位“小蜜蜂”,並分析了近年來紙媒、自營商以及跨媒介在拓客發展上的推動作用;同時,她也關注到拓客們出現的原因與房地產市場的競爭手段息息相關。

 

除此之外,戰洋教授在關於“小蜜蜂”們的人員組成中,探討了她們的招聘問題,年齡分層問題和城市/農村戶口情況等。在經過招募和培訓後,“小蜜蜂”們會以“兵團戰”的方式從電銷、地推、守盤和團購等路徑開展工作。她非常關注重慶“小蜜蜂”中的中年婦女們,在工作中所面對的性別化技巧與經驗,與她們的活動區域地圖相結合,形成“第一密集區”、“第二密集區”和“輻射區域”。地圖中的這些圈層和點位(加油站、商超等),非常形象地體現了她們工作的圖景與大概流動路徑,這種流動性也具有一定的反身意義。

 

最後,戰洋教授分析了在市場競爭日益官僚化的情形下,“小蜜蜂”們的行業壓力、長時間工作負擔以及人事變動(解雇率、辭職率)等數據。並且,在流行病疫情改變了社會運轉模式的環境中,“小蜜蜂”們不僅工作受到一定的影響,還承受著來自社會、家庭等不同地方的負面情緒。戰洋教授希望在當代中國,如何理解“小蜜蜂”這種“非必要”工作的存在,是十分需要成為人們去關注和研究的議題。

 

 

撰寫者:香港中文大學性別研究課程博士生彭依伊 Yiyi Peng